Independent Kazakhstan

The Republic of Kazakhstan – the 9th largest country in the world is located in the central part of the Eurasian continent, at an equal distance from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The area of 2724.9 thousand square km allows Kazakhstan to be titled the 4th largest country in Eurasia. Surveyors presume that this area allows to place on the territory seven largest countries in Europe at the same time, such as France, Spain, Sweden, Germany, Finland, Italy and the United Kingdom.

Kazakhstan borders with Russia (on the east, north and north-west), China (on the south-east) and the countries of Central Asia – Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan (on the south). Border length of the country is 12.2 thousand km, 600 km of which run over the Caspian Sea.

Kazakhstan is proud of the abundance of its land resources, which is full of minerals, and contains nearly all elements of the Mendeleev’s table.

Another unique feature of the country is its landscape diversity. 58% of the territory of Kazakhstan is desert and semi-desert while 10% of the territory are the mountains. The north of the country is rich of steppe and forest-steppe zones. More than seven thousand rivers of over 10 kilometers long cross these areas. The largest rivers of Kazakhstan are Irtysh (2482 km), Ishim (2450 km), Syr-Darya (2219km) and Ili (1439 km). Most of the rivers belong to the basins of the Caspian and Aral seas, and to the lakes Balkhash and Tengiz. Three rivers flow their waters into the Caspian Sea — Irtysh, Ishim and Tobol.

Kazakhstan natural landscape include range of mountains in the north, which are the part of the Tien-Shan, the part of Altai mountain system and Saryarka — Kazakh Hammocks.

Kazakhstan consolidates 86 agglomerations with the status of city. The percentage of urban population in the country is 56%. The largest cities of the Republic are Astana, Almaty, Karaganda, Kyzylorda, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Pavlodar, Petropavlovsk, Taraz, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Uralsk and Shymkent.

2 January 1992 Kazakhstan became a member of the OSCE. In the same year the republic was accepted to UN.

15 November 1993 Kazakhstan introduced its national currency - tenge.

20 October 1997 – the capital of Kazakhstan was moved from Almaty to Astana (then called Akmola).